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324       HISTORY OF WESTERN EDUCATION

the clear images are transformed into definite ideas—that is^ into
ideas by which things can be defined. The objects previously
known only as individuals are now seen in relation to other
objects, and pertain to the completed knowledge which expresses
itself in definition.

The question then arises: What part is played by the Art of
Education in this transition from vague sense impressions to
definite ideas ? The answer to that is got by considering the
process of mental growth from both ends—from its beginning
in the experience of the child, and its conclusion as represented
by the definite ideas of the adult which the child acquires with
the teacher's aid. So far as the child is concerned, the funda-
mental fact is what Pestalozzi calls Anschauung—tht child's
owft experience of facts of any kind—the " sense impressions "

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on which are based all intellectual acquirements, the " intuijja^ "
of God in which religion has its roots, etc. A lesson in which the
child sees, handles or otherwise makes direct acquaintance with
an object is an Anschauung lesson: Amchauung enters into,a
geography lesson, for example, when the,, pupil sees .natuir^l
phenomena or places for himself, instead of merely hearing about
them or learning about them from diagrams. On the side of the
^teacher, the process has to be viewed from the upper end as
completed. He himself has got to these definite ideas which
interpret his pupil's experiences, and it is his business to select
and direct these experiences towards definiteness. " If our
development through nature alone is not sufficiently rapid and
unimpeded, the business of instruction is to remove the confusion
of these first sense impressions: (a) to separate the objects from
one another [and make them distinct]; (b) to put together in
imagination those which resemble or are related to each other and
in this way to make them all clear to us; and (c) by perfect
clearness in these, to raise in us definite ideas. Instruction does
this (a] when it presents these confused and blurred sense impres-
sions to us as units [which can be enumerated]; (b) then places
these changing sense impressions in different positions before
our eyes [so that we become acquainted with their form] ; and
finally, (c) brings them into connection with the whole cycle of
our previous knowledge [and gives them names]."* In brief,
learning may be regarded either as a process of giving content to
• Hew Gertrude Teaches Her Children, TK